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Journal Article

Anomalous surface diffusion of protons on lipid membranes.

MPS-Authors
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Wolf,  M. G.
Department of Theoretical and Computational Biophysics, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Grubmüller,  H.
Department of Theoretical and Computational Biophysics, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Groenhof,  G.
Department of Theoretical and Computational Biophysics, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

Fulltext (public)

2042963.pdf
(Publisher version), 2MB

Supplementary Material (public)

2042963-Suppl.pdf
(Supplementary material), 507KB

Citation

Wolf, M. G., Grubmüller, H., & Groenhof, G. (2014). Anomalous surface diffusion of protons on lipid membranes. Biophysical Journal, 107(1), 76-87. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2014.04.062.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0019-F42A-B
Abstract
The cellular energy machinery depends on the presence and properties of protons at or in the vicinity of lipid membranes. To asses the energetics and mobility of a proton near a membrane, we simulated an excess proton near a solvated DMPC bilayer at 323 K, using a recently developed method to include the Grotthuss proton shuttling mechanism in classical molecular dynamics simulations. We obtained a proton surface affinity of -13.0 ± 0.5 kJ mol(-1). The proton interacted strongly with both lipid headgroup and linker carbonyl oxygens. Furthermore, the surface diffusion of the proton was anomalous, with a subdiffusive regime over the first few nanoseconds, followed by a superdiffusive regime. The time- and distance dependence of the proton surface diffusion coefficient within these regimes may also resolve discrepancies between previously reported diffusion coefficients. Our simulations show that the proton anomalous surface diffusion originates from restricted diffusion in two different surface-bound states, interrupted by the occasional bulk-mediated long-range surface diffusion. Although only a DMPC membrane was considered in this work, we speculate that the restrictive character of the on-surface diffusion is highly sensitive to the specific membrane conditions, which can alter the relative contributions of the surface and bulk pathways to the overall diffusion process. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for the energy machinery.