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Molecular Suppression of the Pimerization of Viologens (=4,4′-Bipyridinium Derivatives) Attached to Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Thin-Film Electrodes

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Felderhoff,  Michael
Research Department Schüth, Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Max Planck Society;
Institut für Chemie, Universität Osnabrück, Barbarastr. 7, D-49069 Osnabrück;

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Citation

Felderhoff, M., Heinen, S., Molisho, N., Webersinn, S., & Walder, L. (2000). Molecular Suppression of the Pimerization of Viologens (=4,4′-Bipyridinium Derivatives) Attached to Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Thin-Film Electrodes. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 83(1), 181-192. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2675(20000119)83:1<181:AID-HLCA181>3.0.CO;2-U.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0024-21CB-4
Abstract
Twelve viologens, i.e., 4,4′-bipyridinium derivatives 1 – 12, were examined for their use as electrochromic material when attached to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin-film electrodes. Eight of these (1 – 4, 7 – 8, 10, and 12) are new, and their synthesis is included. The modifier compounds consist of one to four bipyridinium subunits with linear or dendritic architecture, equipped with one to three TiO2-anchoring phosphonate groups. They are tailored for high electrochromic dynamics (large absorbance change upon reduction) and low extent of pimerization (=charge-transfer (CT) complexation of viologen cation radicals). A new graphical method is presented for the discrimination of simple dilution phenomena and more complex structural effects on the extent of pimerization in the surface-attached viologen layer.