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AMBER-DYES: Characterization of charge fluctuations and force field parameterization of fluorescent dyes for molecular dynamics simulations.

MPS-Authors
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Graen,  T.
Department of Theoretical and Computational Biophysics, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Höfling,  M.
Department of Theoretical and Computational Biophysics, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Grubmüller,  H.
Department of Theoretical and Computational Biophysics, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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2081966.pdf
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Supplementary Material (public)

2081966_Suppl.zip
(Supplementary material), 297KB

Citation

Graen, T., Höfling, M., & Grubmüller, H. (2014). AMBER-DYES: Characterization of charge fluctuations and force field parameterization of fluorescent dyes for molecular dynamics simulations. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 10(12), 5505-5512. doi:10.1021/ct500869p.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0024-6B1B-2
Abstract
Recent advances in single molecule fluorescence experiments and theory allow a direct comparison and improved interpretation of experiment and simulation. To this end, force fields for a larger number of dyes are required which are compatible with and can be integrated into existing biomolecular force fields. Here, we developed, characterized, and implemented AMBER-DYES, a modular fluorescent label force field, for a set of 22 fluorescent dyes and their linkers from the Alexa, Atto, and Cy families, which are in common use for single molecule spectroscopy experiments. The force field is compatible with the AMBER protein force fields and the GROMACS molecular dynamics simulation program. The high electronic polarizability of the delocalized π-electron orbitals, as found in many fluorescent dyes, poses a particular challenge to point charge based force fields such as AMBER. To quantify the charge fluctuations due to the electronic polarizability, we simulated the 22 dyes in explicit solvent and sampled the charge fluctuations using QM/MM simulations at the B3LYP/6-31G*//TIP3P level of theory. The analysis of the simulations enabled us to derive ensemble fitted RESP charges from the solvated charge distributions of multiple trajectories. We observed broad, single peaked charge distributions for the conjugated ring atoms with well-defined mean values. The charge fitting procedure was validated against published charges of the dyelike amino acid tryptophan, which showed good agreement with existing tryptophan parameters from the AMBER, CHARMM, and OPLS force field families. A principal component analysis of the charge fluctuations revealed that a small number of collective coordinates suffices to describe most of the in-plane dye polarizability. The AMBER-DYES force field allows the rapid preparation of all atom molecular dynamics simulations of fluorescent systems for state of the art multi microsecond trajectories.