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Cerebral ischemic preconditioning - An experimental phenomenon or a clinical important entity of stroke prevention?

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Schaller,  Bernhard
Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Emeriti, Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Managing Director: Jens Brüning, Max Planck Society;

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Graf,  Rudolf
Multimodal Imaging of Brain Metabolism, Research Groups, Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Managing Director: Jens Brüning, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Schaller, B., & Graf, R. (2002). Cerebral ischemic preconditioning - An experimental phenomenon or a clinical important entity of stroke prevention? Journal of Neurology, 249(11), 1503-1511.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0026-D2E4-2
Abstract
Copyright 2002 Springer Verlag
Neurons can be preconditioned by various procedures to resist ischemic events. The preconditioning mechanism induced is characterized by a brief episode of ischemia that renders the brain more resistant against subsequent longer ischemic events. This ischemic tolerance has been shown in numerous experimental models of cerebral ischemia. The basic molecular mechanisms of ischemic tolerance are largely unknown. During the induction phase N-methyl-O-aspartate and adenosine receptors and, possibly, oxygen free radicals and conservation of energy metabolism are required. Protein kinases, transcription factors, and immediate early genes appear to transduce the signal into a tolerant response. Although the mechanism of ischemic tolerance remains uncertain, its discovery provides the focus for further understanding of the mechanism of endogenous neuroprotection and the potential of novel therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection. Such neuroprotective strategies may extend beyond ischemic tolerance to include other brain injury states as well.