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Biomass-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Aerogels from a Salt Melt Sol–Gel Synthesis and their Performance in Li–S Batteries

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Schipper,  Florian
Helmut Schlaad, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Ren,  Jiawen
Markus Antonietti, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Fellinger,  Tim-Patrick
Tim Fellinger, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Schipper, F., Vizintin, A., Ren, J., Dominko, R., & Fellinger, T.-P. (2015). Biomass-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Aerogels from a Salt Melt Sol–Gel Synthesis and their Performance in Li–S Batteries. ChemSusChem, 8, 3077-3083. doi:10.1002/cssc.201500832.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0028-4B29-7
Abstract
An ionothermal sol–gel strategy to synthesize hierarchically porous carbon aerogels doped with different heteroatoms is presented by using biomass precursors in a scalable process. Morphologically similar but chemically different materials are used to study the influence of heteroatoms in Li–S batteries. The materials show capacities as high as 1290 mAh g−1 in the first cycle using 50 wt % S loading. Heteroatom doping reduces the capacity fading and the polarization throughout cycling. Zeta potential measurements reveal positive surface charges for heteroatom-doped carbons and indicate attractive interactions with polysulfides causing reduced fading. A polysulfide-selective sorption study reveals strongly different adsorption behavior depending on the carbon’s chemical composition. Interestingly, the polysulfide fraction is also crucial. The results indicate that improved adsorption of long-chain polysulfides to doped carbons is related to improved capacity retention.