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Nitrogen-doped carbon electrodes : influence of microstructure and nitrogen configuration on the electrical conductivity of carbonized polyacrylonitrile and poly(ionic liquid) blends

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Yuan,  Jiayin
Jiayin Yuan, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Antonietti,  Markus
Markus Antonietti, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Einert, M., Wessel, C., Badaczewski, F., Leichtweiß, T., Eufinger, C., Janek, J., et al. (2015). Nitrogen-doped carbon electrodes: influence of microstructure and nitrogen configuration on the electrical conductivity of carbonized polyacrylonitrile and poly(ionic liquid) blends. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 216(19), 1930-1944. doi:10.1002/macp.201500169.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0028-5449-D
Abstract
In this paper, the preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon fibers and thin films from mixtures of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and a poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) by electrospinning and dip-coating is presented, respectively, followed by carbonization at distinct temperatures. The poor processability of the PIL into sub-micrometer fibers by electrospinning—originating from its high charge density and meanwhile low glass transition temperature—is successfully circumvented by using blends of PAN and PIL. The electrospun fiber mats exhibit a high surface-to-volume-ratio with an intrinsically macroporous through-pore structure and a uniform fiber diameter after carbonization. Physicochemical characterization of the N-doped carbons by means of scanning electron microscopy, algorithmic X-Ray diffraction analysis, nitrogen physisorption, thermogravimetry, elemental analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy gives insight into their physical and electrical structures. Impedance measurements on carbonized PIL/PAN-blends reveal high electrical conductivities up to 320 S cm−1, which are attributed to the incorporation of predominantly quaternary-graphitic nitrogen atoms into the carbon network during carbonization. The results indicate that the electrical conductance of the N-doped carbons strongly depends on the chemical environment of the inserted nitrogen atoms, the microstructural evolution of π-conjugated carbon network—which in turn correlate with the carbonization temperature—and the chemical composition.