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Journal Article

TLR3-mediated IFN-beta gene induction is negatively regulated by the TLR adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like

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Siednienko, J., Halle, A., Nagpal, K., Golenbock, D., & Miggin, S. M. (2010). TLR3-mediated IFN-beta gene induction is negatively regulated by the TLR adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like. European Journal of Immunology, 40(11), 3150-3160.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0028-6474-A
There is limited insight into the mechanisms involved in the counterregulation of TLR. Given the important role of TLR3/TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)dependent signalling in innate immunity, novel insights into its modulation is of significance in the context of many physiological and pathological processes. Herein, we sought to perform analysis to definitively assign a mechanistic role for MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal), an activator of TLR2/4 signalling, in the negative regulation of TLR3/TRIF signalling. Biochemical and functional analysis demonstrates that Mal negatively regulates TLR3, but not TLR4, mediated IFN-beta production. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that Mal associates with IRF7 (IRF, IFN regulatory factor), not IRF3, and Mal specifically blocks IRF7 activation. In doing so, Mal impedes TLR3 ligand-induced IFN-beta induction. Interestingly, Mal does not affect the induction of IL-6 and TNF-alpha upon TLR3 ligand engagement. Together, these data show that the TLR adaptor Mal interacts with IRF7 and, in doing so, impairs IFN-beta induction through the positive regulatory domains I-III enhancer element of the IFN-beta gene following poly(I:C) stimulation. Our findings offer a new mechanistic insight into TLR3/TRIF signalling through a hitherto unknown mechanism whereby Mal inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IRF7 activation and concomitant IFN-beta production. Thus, Mal is essential in restricting TLR3 signalling thereby protecting the host from unwanted immunopathologies associated with excessive IFN-beta production