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Journal Article

Molecular basis of the membrane interaction of the beta 2e subunit of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.


Park,  Y.
Department of Neurobiology, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Kim, D. I., Kang, M., Kim, S., Lee, J., Park, Y., Chang, I., et al. (2015). Molecular basis of the membrane interaction of the beta 2e subunit of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Biophysical Journal, 109(5), 922-935. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2015.07.040.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0028-6D89-0
The auxiliary beta subunit plays an important role in the regulation of voltage-gated calcium (Ca-V) channels. Recently, it was revealed that beta 2e associates with the plasma membrane through an electrostatic interaction between N-terminal basic residues and anionic phospholipids. However, a molecular-level understanding of beta-subunit membrane recruitment in structural detail has remained elusive. In this study, using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, liposome-binding assays, and multiscale molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation, we developed a physical model of how the beta 2e subunit is recruited electrostatically to the plasma membrane. In a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay with liposomes, binding of the N-terminal peptide (23 residues) to liposome was significantly increased in the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). A mutagenesis analysis suggested that two basic residues proximal to Met-1, Lys-2 (K2) and Trp-5 (W5), are more important for membrane binding of the beta 2e subunit than distal residues from the N-terminus. Our MD simulations revealed that a stretched binding mode of the N-terminus to PS is required for stable membrane attachment through polar and nonpolar interactions. This mode obtained from MD simulations is consistent with experimental results showing that K2A, W5A, and K2A/W5A mutants failed to be targeted to the plasma membrane. We also investigated the effects of a mutated beta 2e subunit on inactivation kinetics and regulation of CaV channels by PIP2. In experiments with voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP), a double mutation in the N-terminus of beta 2e (K2A/W5A) increased the PIP2 sensitivity of Ca(V)2.2 and Ca(V)1.3 channels by similar to 3-fold compared with wild-type beta 2e subunit. Together, our results suggest that membrane targeting of the beta 2e subunit is initiated from the nonspecific electrostatic insertion of N-terminal K2 and W5 residues into the membrane. The PS-beta 2e interaction observed here provides a molecular insight into general principles for protein binding to the plasma membrane, as well as the regulatory roles of phospholipids in transporters and ion channels.