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Journal Article

#### Kohn–Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space

##### MPS-Authors

##### External Resource

http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1518224112

(Publisher version)

http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.01069

(Preprint)

##### Fulltext (public)

1509.01069v1.pdf

(Preprint), 5MB

##### Supplementary Material (public)

There is no public supplementary material available

##### Citation

Flick, J., Ruggenthaler, M., Appel, H., & Rubio, A. (2015). Kohn–Sham approach
to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space.*
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,* *112*(50),
15285-15290. doi:10.1073/pnas.1518224112.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0029-20A0-2

##### Abstract

The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron–photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn–Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron–photon Kohn–Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light–matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account.