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Time-resolved and in-situ X-ray scattering methods beyond photoactivation: Utilizing high-flux X-ray sources for the study of ubiquitous non-photoactive proteins.

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Jain,  R.
Research Group of Structural Dynamics of (Bio)Chemical Systems, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Techert,  S.
Research Group of Structural Dynamics of (Bio)Chemical Systems, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Jain, R., & Techert, S. (2016). Time-resolved and in-situ X-ray scattering methods beyond photoactivation: Utilizing high-flux X-ray sources for the study of ubiquitous non-photoactive proteins. Protein and Peptide Letters, 23(3), 242-254. doi:10.2174/0929866523666160106153847.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0029-AF47-C
Abstract
X-ray scattering technique, comprising of small-angle/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques is increasingly used to characterize the structure and interactions of biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution. It is a method of choice to characterize the flexible, partially folded and unfolded protein systems. X-ray scattering is the last resort for proteins that cannot be investigated by crystallography or NMR and acts as a complementary technique with different biophysical techniques to answer challenging scientific questions. The marriage of the X-ray scattering technique with the fourth dimension "time" yields structural dynamics and kinetics information for protein motions in hierarchical timescales from picoseconds to days. The arrival of the high-flux X-ray beam at third generation synchrotron sources, exceptional X-ray optics, state-of-the-art detectors, upgradation of X-ray scattering beamlines with microfluidics devices and advanced X-ray scattering data analysis procedures are the important reasons behind the shining years of X-ray scattering technique. The best days of the X-ray scattering technique are on the horizon with the advent of the nanofocus X-ray scattering beamlines and fourth generation X-ray lightsources, i.e., free electron lasers (XFELs). Complementary to the photon-triggered time-resolved X-ray scattering techniques, we will present an overview of the time-resolved and in-situ X-ray scattering techniques for structural dynamics of ubiquitous non-photoactive proteins.