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Intranasal guanosine administration presents a wide therapeutic time window to reduce brain damage induced by permanent ischemia in rats.

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Ganzella,  M.
Department of Neurobiology, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Ramos, D. B., Muller, G. C., Rocha, G. B. M., Dellavia, G. H., Almeida, R. F., Pettenuzzo, L. F., et al. (2016). Intranasal guanosine administration presents a wide therapeutic time window to reduce brain damage induced by permanent ischemia in rats. Purinergic Signalling, 12(1), 149-159. doi:10.1007/s11302-015-9489-9.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0029-D32B-B
Abstract
In addition to its intracellular roles, the nucleoside guanosine (GUO) also has extracellular effects that identify it as a putative neuromodulator signaling molecule in the central nervous system. Indeed, GUO can modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, and it can promote neuroprotective effects in animal models involving glutamate neurotoxicity, which is the case in brain ischemia. In the present study, we aimed to investigate a new in vivo GUO administration route (intranasal, IN) to determine putative improvement of GUO neuroprotective effects against an experimental model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Initially, we demonstrated that IN [H-3] GUO administration reached the brain in a dose-dependent and saturable pattern in as few as 5 min, presenting a higher cerebrospinal GUO level compared with systemic administration. IN GUO treatment started immediately or even 3 h after ischemia onset prevented behavior impairment. The behavior recovery was not correlated to decreased brain infarct volume, but it was correlated to reduced mitochondrial dysfunction in the penumbra area. Therefore, we showed that the IN route is an efficient way to promptly deliver GUO to the CNS and that IN GUO treatment prevented behavioral and brain impairment caused by ischemia in a therapeutically wide time window.