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Risk factors for addiction and their association with model-based behavioral control

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Reiter,  Andrea
Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;
Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, TU Dresden, Germany;

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Deserno,  Lorenz
Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Germany;
Department of Neurology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany;

Wilbertz,  Tilmann
Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;

Heinze,  Hans-Jochen
Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;
Department of Neurology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany;
Department of Behavioral Neurology, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany;

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Schlagenhauf,  Florian
Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Germany;

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Reiter_2016.pdf
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Citation

Reiter, A., Deserno, L., Wilbertz, T., Heinze, H.-J., & Schlagenhauf, F. (2016). Risk factors for addiction and their association with model-based behavioral control. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10: 26. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00026.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002A-8C05-7
Abstract
Addiction shows familial aggregation and previous endophenotype research suggests that healthy relatives of addicted individuals share altered behavioral and cognitive characteristics with individuals suffering from addiction. In this study we asked whether impairments in behavioral control proposed for addiction, namely a shift from goal-directed, model-based toward habitual, model-free control, extends toward an unaffected sample (n = 20) of adult children of alcohol-dependent fathers as compared to a sample without any personal or family history of alcohol addiction (n = 17). Using a sequential decision-making task designed to investigate model-free and model-based control combined with a computational modeling analysis, we did not find any evidence for altered behavioral control in individuals with a positive family history of alcohol addiction. Independent of family history of alcohol dependence, we however observed that the interaction of two different risk factors of addiction, namely impulsivity and cognitive capacities, predicts the balance of model-free and model-based behavioral control. Post-hoc tests showed a positive association of model-based behavior with cognitive capacity in the lower, but not in the higher impulsive group of the original sample. In an independent sample of particularly high- vs. low-impulsive individuals, we confirmed the interaction effect of cognitive capacities and high vs. low impulsivity on model-based control. In the confirmation sample, a positive association of omega with cognitive capacity was observed in highly impulsive individuals, but not in low impulsive individuals. Due to the moderate sample size of the study, further investigation of the association of risk factors for addiction with model-based behavior in larger sample sizes is warranted.