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Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrochemically Activated by Bis-Spiro Quaternary Alkyl Ammonium for Capacitors

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Tong,  Yujin
Physical Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

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Cai,  Ke.-Di.
Liaoning Engineering Technology Center of Supercapacitor, Bohai University;
Physical Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

He, T., Xiangling, M., Junping, N., Tong, Y., & Cai, K.-D. (2016). Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrochemically Activated by Bis-Spiro Quaternary Alkyl Ammonium for Capacitors. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 8(22), 13865-13870. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b00885.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002B-0926-0
Abstract
Thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrochemically activated by a quaternary alkyl ammonium-based organic electrolytes/activated carbon (AC) electrode asymmetric capacitor is proposed. The electrochemical activation process includes adsorption of anions into the pores of AC in the positive electrode and the interlayer intercalation of cations into RGO in the negative electrode under high potential (4.0 V). The EA process of RGO by quaternary alkyl ammonium was investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, and the effects of cation size and structure were extensively evaluated. Intercalation by quaternary alkyl ammonium demonstrates a small degree of expansion of the whole crystal lattice (d002) and a large degree of expansion of the partial crystal lattice (d002) of RGO. RGO electrochemically activated by bis-spiro quaternary alkyl ammonium in propylene carbonate/AC asymmetric capacitor exhibits good activated efficiency, high specific capacity, and stable cyclability.