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#### Branch points in the complex plane and geometric phases

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##### Citation

Rotter, I. (2002). Branch points in the complex plane and geometric phases.*
Physical Review E,* *65*(2): 026217. Retrieved from http://ojps.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PLEEE8000065000002026217000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002B-3830-A

##### Abstract

Laser-induced degenerate states (LIDS) are equivalent to double poles of the S matrix that are branch points in the complex plane (BPCP). These branch points cause geometric phase changes by encircling them adiabatically around a closed circuit by varying certain parameters. They cause also the well-known phase changes appearing by encircling a diabolic point (DP) being a singularity associated with level repulsion. In both cases, the wave functions are exchanged, (&UPhi;) over tilde (i)-->+/-i (&UPhi;) over tilde (jnot equali), at the critical value of the parameter where the states avoid crossing. Such a critical point is passed twice by encircling a DP but only once by surrounding a BPCP. As a consequence, the phase changes are different in both cases. A second surrounding restores the wave functions including their phases in both cases (when the BPCP is well isolated from others and the time of encircling is shorter than the lifetime of the two states). The different interference pictures appearing in surrounding LIDS adiabatically in opposite directions on a closed circuit represent a completion of the work by Berry.