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Translocation as continuous movement through the ribosome.

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Belardinelli,  R.
Department of Physical Biochemistry, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Sharma,  H.
Department of Physical Biochemistry, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Peske,  F.
Department of Physical Biochemistry, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Wintermeyer,  W.
Research Group of Ribosome Dynamics, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Rodnina,  M. V.
Department of Physical Biochemistry, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Belardinelli, R., Sharma, H., Peske, F., Wintermeyer, W., & Rodnina, M. V. (2016). Translocation as continuous movement through the ribosome. RNA Biology, 13(12), 1197-1203. doi:10.1080/15476286.2016.1240140.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002B-B680-A
Abstract
In each round of translation elongation, tRNAs and mRNA move within the ribosome by one codon at a time. tRNA-mRNA translocation is promoted by elongation factor G (EF-G) at the cost of GTP hydrolysis. The key questions for understanding translocation are how and when the tRNAs move and how EF-G coordinates motions of the ribosomal subunits with tRNA movement. Here we present 2 recent papers which describe the choreography of movements over the whole trajectory of translocation. We present the view that EF-G accelerates translocation by promoting the steps that lead to GTPase-dependent ribosome unlocking. EF-G facilitates the formation of the rotated state of the ribosome and uncouples the backward motions of the ribosomal subunits, forming an open conformation in which the tRNAs can rapidly move. Ribosome dynamics are important not only in translocation, but also in recoding events, such as frameshifting and bypassing, and mediate sensitivity to antibiotics.