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Journal Article

The PERCIVAL soft X-ray imager.


Glaser,  L.
Research Group of Structural Dynamics of (Bio)Chemical Systems, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Wunderer, C. B., Marras, A., Bayer, M., Glaser, L., Göttlicher, P., Lange, S., et al. (2014). The PERCIVAL soft X-ray imager. Journal of Instrumentation, 9(3): C03056. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/9/03/C03056.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002B-BA54-3
With the increased brilliance of state-of-the-art Synchrotron radiation sources and the advent of Free Electron Lasers enabling revolutionary science with EUV to X-ray photons comes an urgent need for suitable photon imaging detectors. Requirements include high frame rates, very large dynamic range, single-photon counting capability with low probability of false positives, and (multi)-megapixels. PERCIVAL (``Pixelated Energy Resolving CMOS Imager, Versatile and Large'') is currently being developed by a collaboration of DESY, RAL, Elettra and DLS to address this need for the soft X-ray regime. PERCIVAL is a monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS), i.e. based on CMOS technology. It will be back-thinned to access its primary energy range of 250 eV to 1 keV with target efficiencies above 90%. According to its preliminary specifications, the roughly 10 × 10 cm2, 3520 × 3710 pixel monolithic sensor will operate at frame rates up to 120 Hz (commensurate with most FELs) and use multiple gains within its 27 μm pixels to measure (e.g. at 500 eV) 1 to ~ 105 simultaneously-arriving photons. Currently, small-scale front-illuminated prototype systems (160 × 210 pixels) are undergoing detailed testing with visible-light as well as X-ray photons.