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Journal Article

Actin-cytoskeleton dynamics in non-monotonic cell spreading

MPS-Authors
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Aydin,  Daniel
Cellular Biophysics, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Max Planck Society;

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Blümmel,  Jacques
Cellular Biophysics, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Max Planck Society;

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Spatz,  Joachim P.
Cellular Biophysics, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Max Planck Society;
Biophysical Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany;

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Citation

Heinrich, D., Youssef, S., Schroth-Diez, B., Engel, U., Aydin, D., Blümmel, J., et al. (2008). Actin-cytoskeleton dynamics in non-monotonic cell spreading. Cell adhesion & migration, 2(2), 58-68. doi:10.4161/cam.2.2.6190.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0010-4093-C
Abstract
The spreading of motile cells on a substrate surface is accompanied by reorganization of their actin network. We show that spreading in the highly motile cells of Dictyostelium is non-monotonic, and thus differs from the passage of spreading cells through a regular series of stages. Quantification of the gain and loss of contact area revealed fluctuating forces of protrusion and retraction that dominate the interaction of Dictyostelium cells with a substrate. The molecular basis of these fluctuations is elucidated by dual-fluorescence labeling of filamentous actin together with proteins that highlight specific activities in the actin system. Front-to-tail polarity is established by the sorting out of myosin-II from regions where dense actin assemblies are accumulating. Myosin-IB identifies protruding front regions, and the Arp2/3 complex localizes to lamellipodia protruded from the fronts. Coronin is used as a sensitive indicator of actin disassembly to visualize the delicate balance of polymerization and depolymerization in spreading cells. Short-lived actin patches that co-localize with clathrin suggest that membrane internalization occurs even when the substrate-attached cell surface expands. We conclude that non-monotonic cell spreading is characterized by spatiotemporal patterns formed by motor proteins together with regulatory proteins that either promote or terminate actin polymerization on the scale of seconds.