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Effect of chirality on monoacylglycerol ester monolayer characteristics: 3-monostearoyl-sn-glycerol

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Vollhardt,  Dieter
Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Brezesinski,  Gerald
Biomolekulare Systeme, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Vollhardt, D., & Brezesinski, G. (2017). Effect of chirality on monoacylglycerol ester monolayer characteristics: 3-monostearoyl-sn-glycerol. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 19(10), 7009-7024. doi:10.1039/C7CP00431A.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002C-A23A-B
Abstract
The effect of chirality on the thermodynamic behavior, the morphological features, and the 2D lattice structures of 3-monostearoyl-sn-glycerol monolayers is studied. The present study focusses on the influence of the alkyl chain length on the chiral discrimination. Surface pressure-area ([small pi]-A) isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and particularly, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) are the experimental basis of the presented results. The [small pi]-A isotherms of the enantiomeric 3-monostearoyl-sn-glycerol monolayers measured between 25 and 38 [degree]C resemble those of the racemic 1-monostearoyl-rac-glycerol monolayers, thus indicating small energetic differences between the enantiomeric and the racemic forms. The absolute [capital Delta]S values increase as the temperature decreases and thus, the ordering of the condensed phase increases at lower temperatures. The extrapolation to zero [capital Delta]S provides a critical temperature Tc of 42.1 [degree]C (315.3 K), above which the monolayer cannot be compressed into the condensed state. Despite the great tendency of the 3-monostearoyl-sn-glycerol domains to develop irregular deviations in shape and inner texture, regular domains similar to those of the racemic monoacylglycerol esters are also formed. GIXD measurements performed over a large range of lateral pressures at four different temperatures (5, 10, 15 and 20 [degree]C) indicate the dominance of the chiral nature. Contour plots with three clearly separated diffraction signals are observable in a large pressure range which is shifted to higher lateral pressures with increasing temperature. The comparison with the contour plots of the homologous 3-monopalmitoyl-sn-glycerol monolayers reveals the stronger dominance of the chiral nature with increasing alkyl chain length and thus, demonstrates the stronger influence of the lattice symmetry. The lattice data obtained by fitting the contour plots with 3 or 2 peaks demonstrate the resemblance to orthorhombic structures with NN tilted molecules at low pressures and NNN tilted molecules at high pressures. The temperature and alkyl chain length dependence of the distortion at zero tilt angle, d0, of the enantiomeric and racemic monoacylglycerols shows an increased influence of chirality on the lattice distortion for the shorter-chain compound (equivalent to increased temperature). This demonstrates that lattice distortion and lattice symmetry are differently influenced by chirality.