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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in photochemically aged air from the Eastern and Western Mediterranean

MPS-Authors
/persons/resource/persons195370

Derstroff,  B.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons204336

Hüser,  I.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101233

Sander,  R.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons100898

Crowley,  J. N.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons100935

Fischer,  H.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons100964

Gromov,  S.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons100983

Harder,  H.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101057

Kesselmeier,  J.
Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons195139

Mallik,  C.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101122

Martinez,  M.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101161

Novelli,  A.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101170

Parchatka,  U.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons140364

Sauvage,  C.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons203248

Schuladen,  J.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons195368

Stönner,  C.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons203250

Tomsche,  L.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101364

Williams,  J.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Derstroff, B., Hüser, I., Sander, R., Crowley, J. N., Fischer, H., Gromov, S., et al. (2016). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in photochemically aged air from the Eastern and Western Mediterranean. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 16.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002C-EEE5-D
Abstract
During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014) in the Eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34°57' N/32°23' E). Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from Western (Spain, France, Italy) and Eastern (Turkey, Greece) Europe. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from below detection limit at night to 100 pptv by day on average. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) methanol and acetone exhibited no diel cycle and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (range: 1–8 ppbv) than the locally emitted isoprene (up to 320 pptv), total monoterpenes (up to 250 pptv) and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene (up to 100 pptv, spikes up to 400 pptv). Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv and followed a pronounced diel cycle in one specific period, which was related to local production and loss and local meteorological effects. During the rest of the campaign the impact of the free troposphere and long distance transport from source regions dominated over local processes and diel cycles were not observed. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times of air masses originating from Eastern and Western Europe. Eastern and Western European air masses showed distinct trace gas concentrations, with ca. 20 % higher ozone and ca. 30–50 % higher values for most of the OVOCs observed from the East. Using the FLEXPART calculated transport time, the contribution of photochemical processing, sea surface contact and dilution was estimated. Methanol, acetone and acetic acid all decreased with residence time in the marine boundary layer (MBL) with loss rates of 0.1 ± 0.01 ppbv/h, 0.06 ± 0.01 ppbv/h, 0.05 ± 0.01 ppbv/h from Eastern Europe and 0.06 ± 0.01 ppbv/h, 0.02 ± 0.004 ppbv/h and 0.03 ± 0.004 ppbv/h from Western Europe, respectively. The most soluble species, acetic acid, showed the lowest loss rates, indicating that solubility limited deposition to the ocean was not the only factor and that turbulent transport, plume dilution, microbial consumption within the surface of the ocean and especially entrainment from the free troposphere may also be important. Correlations between acetone, methanol and acetic acid were rather weak in western air masses (r2 = 0.52–0.62), but were stronger in air masses measured after the shorter transport time from the East (r2 = 0.53–0.81).