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Active sites on graphene-based materials as metal-free catalysts

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Antonietti,  Markus
Markus Antonietti, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Navalon, S., Dhakshinamoorthy, A., Alvaro, M., Antonietti, M., & Garcia, H. (2017). Active sites on graphene-based materials as metal-free catalysts. Chemical Society Reviews, 46(15), 4501-4529. doi:10.1039/C7CS00156H.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002D-5A9F-0
Abstract
Graphenes and related materials have attracted growing interest as metal-free catalysts. The present review is focused on describing the active sites that have been proposed to be responsible for the catalytic activity observed for such systems. It will be shown that diverse defects and chemical functionalities on the graphene layers can catalyze reactions, including oxygenated functional groups, carbon vacancies and holes, edge effects, and the presence of dopant elements. Besides discrete active sites, the catalytic activity arising from the collective properties of graphenes as materials by adsorbing substrates and reagents and activating them by charge transfer is also commented. The review has an introductory general section summarizing the general methodologies that have been used to support the proposed structure of the active sites, including theoretical calculations, comparison of the catalytic activity of graphene samples with different compositions, the use of organic molecules as models of the active centers, and selective masking of functional groups. The review is concluded with our view on future developments in the field.