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Journal Article

Dealing with the exponential wall in electronic structure calculations


Fulde,  Peter
Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Max Planck Society;

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Fulde, P., & Stoll, H. (2017). Dealing with the exponential wall in electronic structure calculations. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 146(19): 194107. doi:10.1063/1.4983207.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002D-C581-3
An alternative to the density functional theory is the use of wavefunction based electronic structure calculations for solids. In order to perform them, the Exponential Wall (EW) problem has to be resolved. It is caused by an exponential increase of the number of configurations with increasing electron number N. There are different routes one may follow. One is to characterize a many-electron wavefunction by a vector in Liouville space with a cumulant metric rather than in Hilbert space. This removes the EW problem. Another is to model the solid by an impurity or fragment embedded in a bath which is treated at a much lower level than the former. This is the case in the Density Matrix Embedding Theory (DMET) or the Density Embedding Theory (DET). The latter two are closely related to a Schmidt decomposition of a system and to the determination of the associated entanglement. We show here the connection between the two approaches. It turns out that the DMET (or DET) has an identical active space as a previously used Local Ansatz, based on a projection and partitioning approach. Yet, the EW problem is resolved differently in the two cases. By studying a H-10 ring, these differences are analyzed with the help of the method of increments. Published by AIP Publishing.