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Efficient Prevention of Neurodegenerative Diseases by Depletion of Starvation Response Factor Ataxin-2

MPG-Autoren
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Meierhofer,  David
Mass Spectrometry (Head: David Meierhofer), Scientific Service (Head: Christoph Krukenkamp), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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Zitation

Auburger, G., Sen, N.-E., Meierhofer, D., Başak, A.-N., & Gitler, A. D. (2017). Efficient Prevention of Neurodegenerative Diseases by Depletion of Starvation Response Factor Ataxin-2. Trends in Neurosciences, 40(8), 507-516. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2017.06.004.


Zitierlink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002D-D34A-3
Zusammenfassung
Ataxin-2 (ATXN2) homologs exist in all eukaryotic organisms and may have contributed to their origin. Apart from a role in endocytosis, they are known for global effects on mRNA repair and ribosomal translation. Cell size, protein synthesis, and fat and glycogen storage are repressed by ATXN2 via mTORC1 signaling. However, specific liver mitochondrial matrix enzymes and the mitochondrial repair factor PINK1 require ATXN2 abundance. During periods of starvation, ATXN2 is transcriptionally induced and localized to cytosolic stress granules, where nuclear factors dock to compensate RNA pathology. These physiological actions were now revealed to be crucial for human neurodegenerative diseases, given that ATXN2 depletion is surprisingly efficient in preventing motor neuron and cerebellar atrophy, as demonstrated in mouse models, flies, and yeast.