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Journal Article

Fluorescent and spin label probes of the environments of the sulfhydryl groups of porcine muscle adenylate kinase.


Schirmer,  R. Heiner
Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Max Planck Society;

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Price, N. C., Cohn, M., & Schirmer, R. H. (1975). Fluorescent and spin label probes of the environments of the sulfhydryl groups of porcine muscle adenylate kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 250(2), 644-652.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002E-008B-B
The environments of the two sulfhydryl groups of procine muscle adenylate kinase have been investigated by chemical modification reactions. The results indicate that the environments of the two-SH groups of procine muscle adenylate kinase are markedly different and that substrates induce conformational changes in the enzyme in the region of the sulfhydryl groups. The fluorogenic reagent 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole (NBD-chloride) reacts specifically with the -SH groups of the enzyme at pH 7.9. One thiol group reacts with NBD-chloride approximately 40-fold faster than the other one, and the fast reacting group has been identified as Cys-25 in the amino acid sequence. The similarity of the rate of the more slowly reacting Cys-187 with NBD-chloride to that of glutathione with the same reagent is consistent with its location on the surface of the enzyme as determined by x-ray crystallography structure. The fast reacting Cys-25 in the interior of the structure can be approached by compounds such as NBD-chloride via a cleft. Reaction of Cys-25, presumably located close to the catalytic center, leads to complete inactivation of the enzyme. Substrates such as ATP, MgATP, and ADP which bind to the triphosphate subsite of the enzyme decrease the rate of reaction of Cys-25 by factors up to 3.5 but have only a small effect (approximately equal to 10%) on the reactivity of Cys-187. AMP, however, has a pronounced effect on the reactivity of Cys-187, the slowly reacting group. The multisubstrate analogue P-1, P-5-di-(adenosine-5)pentaphosphate (Ap-5A) decreases the rate of reaction of the fast reacting thiol group by a factor of 300. The behavior of Cys-25 toward NBD-chloride, i.e. super-reactivity in the absense of Ap-5A and slow reactivity in the presence of the multisubstrate inhibitor, was characteristic for both porcin and carp adenylate kinase. In the presence of Ap-5A adenylate kinase can be selectively modified at Cys-187; the introduction of the fluorescent NBD group at this position has no effect on enzymatic activity. A slow transfer of the NBD group occurs from the third groups to the epsilon-amino group of Lys-31. This transfer reaction is further evidence that the structure of adenylate kinase in dilute solution is similar to that of the crystalline enzyme since the x-ray data have shown that the sulfur of Cys-187 and the epsilon-nitrogen of Lys-31 are less than 4 A apart. The strongly fluorescent NBD-NH-enzyme possesses full activity and binds substrates as. cont'd