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Bio-oil upgrading via vapor-phase ketonization over nanostructured FeOx and MnOx: catalytic performance and mechanistic insight

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Gu,  Dong
Research Department Schüth, Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Max Planck Society;

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Schüth,  Ferdi
Research Department Schüth, Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Heracleous, E., Gu, D., Schüth, F., Bennett, J. A., Isaacs, M. A., Lee, A. F., et al. (2017). Bio-oil upgrading via vapor-phase ketonization over nanostructured FeOx and MnOx: catalytic performance and mechanistic insight. Biomass and Bioenergy, 7(3), 319-329. doi:10.1007/s13399-017-0268-4.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002E-18EB-9
Abstract
In this study, nanostructured FeOx and MnOx were prepared by two synthetic routes, nanocasting and hydrothermal, and evaluated for bio-oil upgrading via vapor-phase ketonization. Catalytic performance measurements in the ketonization of representative model compounds, acetic and propionic acid, at 335 °C showed high activity for the hydrothermal MnOx and nanocast FeOx (conversion >90%) with high selectivity to the respective ketones. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) studies followed by temperature-programmed thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and MS showed that the reactive intermediates are bidentate acetate species that desorb as acetone over FeOx and unreacted acetic acid over MnOx (in contradiction to its associated catalysis). Powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of used samples revealed that MnO2 was reduced to MnO during reaction. The relative surface concentrations of adsorbed acetate for the used MnOx catalysts (from DRIFTS) correlated with their corresponding acetic acid conversion (from ketonization studies), indicating that MnO is the active phase for acetic acid ketonization, with MnO2 a precursor which is reduced in situ at temperatures >300°C. Vapor-phase ketonization of the aqueous phase of a real thermal bio-oil, produced from the fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, was demonstrated successfully over MnOx prepared by the hydrothermal route, highlighting this as an attractive approach for the upgrading of pyrolysis bio-oils.