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Journal Article

X-chromosome dosage as a modulator of pluripotency, signalling and differentiation?


Schulz,  Edda G.
Regulatory Networks in Stem Cells (Edda G. Schulz), Independent Junior Research Groups (OWL), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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Schulz, E. G. (2017). X-chromosome dosage as a modulator of pluripotency, signalling and differentiation? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 372(1733): pii: 20160366. doi:10.1098/rstb.2016.0366.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0000-74B6-0
Already during early embryogenesis, before sex-specific hormone production is initiated, sex differences in embryonic development have been observed in several mammalian species. Typically, female embryos develop more slowly than their male siblings. A similar phenotype has recently been described in differentiating murine embryonic stem cells, where a double dose of the X-chromosome halts differentiation until dosage-compensation has been achieved through X-chromosome inactivation. On the molecular level, several processes associated with early differentiation of embryonic stem cells have been found to be affected by X-chromosome dosage, such as the transcriptional state of the pluripotency network, the activity pattern of several signal transduction pathways and global levels of DNA-methylation. This review provides an overview of the sex differences described in embryonic stem cells from mice and discusses a series of X-linked genes that are associated with pluripotency, signalling and differentiation and their potential involvement in mediating the observed X-dosage-dependent effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'X-chromosome inactivation: a tribute to Mary Lyon'.