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X-chromosome dosage as a modulator of pluripotency, signalling and differentiation?

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Schulz,  Edda G.
Regulatory Networks in Stem Cells (Edda G. Schulz), Independent Junior Research Groups (OWL), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Schulz, E. G. (2017). X-chromosome dosage as a modulator of pluripotency, signalling and differentiation? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 372(1733): pii: 20160366. doi:10.1098/rstb.2016.0366.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0000-74B6-0
Abstract
Already during early embryogenesis, before sex-specific hormone production is initiated, sex differences in embryonic development have been observed in several mammalian species. Typically, female embryos develop more slowly than their male siblings. A similar phenotype has recently been described in differentiating murine embryonic stem cells, where a double dose of the X-chromosome halts differentiation until dosage-compensation has been achieved through X-chromosome inactivation. On the molecular level, several processes associated with early differentiation of embryonic stem cells have been found to be affected by X-chromosome dosage, such as the transcriptional state of the pluripotency network, the activity pattern of several signal transduction pathways and global levels of DNA-methylation. This review provides an overview of the sex differences described in embryonic stem cells from mice and discusses a series of X-linked genes that are associated with pluripotency, signalling and differentiation and their potential involvement in mediating the observed X-dosage-dependent effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'X-chromosome inactivation: a tribute to Mary Lyon'.