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Journal Article

Universals and cultural diversity in the expression of gratitude

MPS-Authors
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Floyd,  Simeon
Human Sociality and Systems of Language Use, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society;

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Rossi,  Giovanni
Human Sociality and Systems of Language Use, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society;

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Baranova,  Julija
Human Sociality and Systems of Language Use, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society;

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Blythe,  Joe
Human Sociality and Systems of Language Use, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society;

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Dingemanse,  Mark
Human Sociality and Systems of Language Use, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society;

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Kendrick,  Kobin H.
Language and Cognition Department, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society;

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Enfield,  N. J.
Human Sociality and Systems of Language Use, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society;

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Supplementary Material (public)

Coded request sequences
(Supplementary material), 195KB

Expressions of gratitude with translation
(Supplementary material), 38KB

Citation

Floyd, S., Rossi, G., Baranova, J., Blythe, J., Dingemanse, M., Kendrick, K. H., et al. (2018). Universals and cultural diversity in the expression of gratitude. Royal Society Open Science, 5: 180391. doi:10.1098/rsos.180391.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0000-FFF8-A
Abstract
Gratitude is argued to have evolved to motivate and maintain social reciprocity among people, and to be linked to a wide range of positive effects — social, psychological, and even physical. But is socially reciprocal behaviour dependent on the expression of gratitude, for example by saying "thank you" as in English? Current research has not included cross-cultural elements, and has tended to conflate gratitude as an emotion with gratitude as a linguistic practice, as might appear to be the case in English. Here we ask to what extent people actually express gratitude in different societies by focussing on episodes of everyday life where someone obtains a good, service, or support from another, and comparing these episodes across eight languages from five continents. What we find is that expressions of gratitude in these episodes are remarkably rare, suggesting that social reciprocity in everyday life relies on tacit understandings of people’s rights and duties surrounding mutual assistance and collaboration. At the same time, we also find minor cross-cultural variation, with slightly higher rates in Western European languages English and Italian, showing that universal tendencies of social reciprocity should not be conflated with more culturally variable practices of expressing gratitude. Our study complements previous experimental and culture-specific research on social reciprocity with a systematic comparison of audiovisual corpora of naturally occurring social interaction from different cultures from around the world.