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Journal Article

Characterization of pseudo‐continuous arterial spin labeling: Simulations and experimental validation

MPS-Authors
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Lorenz,  Kathrin
Methods and Development Unit Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;

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Mildner,  Toralf
Methods and Development Unit Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;

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Schlumm,  Torsten
Methods and Development Unit Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;

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Möller,  Harald E.
Methods and Development Unit Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Lorenz, K., Mildner, T., Schlumm, T., & Möller, H. E. (2018). Characterization of pseudo‐continuous arterial spin labeling: Simulations and experimental validation. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 79(3), 1638-1649. doi:10.1002/mrm.26805.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0001-1C1E-0
Abstract
Purpose

To characterize pseudo‐continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) through simulations of spin inversion and to discuss suitable parameter settings for measuring cerebral perfusion.
Methods

Simulations of arterial spin inversion in pCASL were performed based on the Bloch equation. Both the labeling and the control condition of pCASL were analyzed separately, and the labeling efficiency, urn:x-wiley:07403194:media:mrm26805:mrm26805-math-0050, was calculated depending on the averages of both, the radiofrequency (RF) field amplitude and labeling gradient strength. The influence of additional parameters characterizing the pCASL pulse sequence, such as the interpulse interval, the RF duty cycle, and the labeling gradient, also were studied. An echo‐planar imaging protocol utilizing a short repetition time was developed for experimental validation by estimating α in the internal carotid artery.
Results

The effectiveness of the control condition of balanced pCASL crucially depends on both the labeling gradient amplitude and the RF duty cycle. The use of large values for both quantities improves the insensitivity to off‐resonance gradients caused by magnetic field inhomogeneities. In addition, balanced and unbalanced pCASL become comparably effective.
Conclusion

By use of appropriate parameter settings, labeling efficiencies of around 90% are feasible, independent of expected off‐resonance gradients at 3T.