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Distinct mechanisms of transcription initiation by RNA polymerases I and II.

MPS-Authors
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Engel,  C.
Department of Molecular Biology, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Neyer,  S.
Department of Molecular Biology, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Cramer,  P.
Department of Molecular Biology, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Engel, C., Neyer, S., & Cramer, P. (2018). Distinct mechanisms of transcription initiation by RNA polymerases I and II. Annual Review of Biophysics, 47, 425-446. doi:10.1146/annurev-biophys-070317-033058.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0001-5E94-F
Abstract
RNA polymerases I and II (Pol I and Pol II) are the eukaryotic enzymes that catalyze DNA-dependent synthesis of ribosomal RNA and messenger RNA, respectively. Recent work shows that the transcribing forms of both enzymes are similar and the fundamental mechanisms of RNA chain elongation are conserved. However, the mechanisms of transcription initiation and its regulation differ between Pol I and Pol II. Recent structural studies of Pol I complexes with transcription initiation factors provided insights into how the polymerase recognizes its specific promoter DNA, how it may open DNA, and how initiation may be regulated. Comparison with the well-studied Pol II initiation system reveals a distinct architecture of the initiation complex and visualizes promoter- and gene-class-specific aspects of transcription initiation. On the basis of new structural studies, we derive a model of the Pol I transcription cycle and provide a molecular movie of Pol I transcription that can be used for teaching.