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Femtosecond single-shot timing and direct observation of subpulse formation in an infrared free-electron laser

MPS-Authors
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Kießling,  Riko
Physical Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

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Gewinner,  Sandy
Molecular Physics, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

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Schöllkopf,  Wieland
Molecular Physics, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

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Wolf,  Martin
Physical Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

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Paarmann,  Alexander
Physical Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

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PhysRevAccelBeams.21.080702.pdf
(Publisher version), 2MB

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Citation

Kießling, R., Colson, W. B., Gewinner, S., Schöllkopf, W., Wolf, M., & Paarmann, A. (2018). Femtosecond single-shot timing and direct observation of subpulse formation in an infrared free-electron laser. Physical Review Accelerators and Beams, 21(08): 080702. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.21.080702.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0001-E7A8-D
Abstract
We experimentally demonstrate a single-shot arrival time monitor for short picosecond infrared free-electron laser (IR FEL) pulses based on balanced optical cross-correlation with a synchronized fs table-top laser. Employing this timing tool at the Fritz Haber Institute IR FEL, we observe a shot-to-shot timing jitter of only \SI100fs and minute-scale timing drifts of a few picoseconds, the latter being strictly correlated with the electron beam energy of the accelerator. We acquire sum-frequency cross-correlation data with micro-pulse resolution, providing full access to the IR FEL pulse shape evolution within the macro-pulse. These measurements provide unprecedented insights into the occurence of limit-cycle oscillations of the FEL intensity as a consequence of sub-pulse formation. Our experimental results are complemented by four-dimensional simulations of the nonlinear pulse dynamics in a low-gain FEL oscillator based on Maxwell-Lorentz theory.