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Retinal cell death dependent reactive proliferative gliosis in the mouse retina.

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Pasha, S. P. B. S., Münch, R., Schäfer, P., Oertel, P., Sykes, A., Zhu, Y., et al. (2017). Retinal cell death dependent reactive proliferative gliosis in the mouse retina. Scientific reports, 7(1): 9517. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-09743-8.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0002-8CB4-5
Abstract
Neurodegeneration is a common starting point of reactive gliosis, which may have beneficial and detrimental consequences. It remains incompletely understood how distinctive pathologies and cell death processes differentially regulate glial responses. Müller glia (MG) in the retina are a prime model: Neurons are regenerated in some species, but in mammals there may be proliferative disorders and scarring. Here, we investigated the relationship between retinal damage and MG proliferation, which are both induced in a reproducible and temporal order in organotypic culture of EGF-treated mouse retina: Hypothermia pretreatment during eye dissection reduced neuronal cell death and MG proliferation; stab wounds increased both. Combined (but not separate) application of defined cell death signaling pathway inhibitors diminished neuronal cell death and maintained MG mitotically quiescent. The level of neuronal cell death determined MG activity, indicated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and proliferation, both of which were abolished by EGFR inhibition. Our data suggest that retinal cell death, possibly either by programmed apoptosis or necrosis, primes MG to be able to transduce the EGFR-ERK activity required for cell proliferation. These results imply that cell death signaling pathways are potential targets for future therapies to prevent the proliferative gliosis frequently associated with certain neurodegenerative conditions.