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The microscale obstacle-resolving meteorological model MITRAS v2.0: model theory

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Salim, M. H., Schlünzen, H., Grawe, D., Boettcher, M., Gierisch, A. M. U., & Fock, B. (2018). The microscale obstacle-resolving meteorological model MITRAS v2.0: model theory. Geoscientific Model Development, 11(8), 3427-3445. doi:10.5194/gmd-11-3427-2018.

Abstract. This paper describes the developing theory and underlying processes of the microscale obstacle-resolving model MITRAS version 2. MITRAS calculates wind, temperature, humidity, and precipitation fields, as well as transport within the obstacle layer using Reynolds averaging. It explicitly resolves obstacles, including buildings and over-hanging obstacles, to consider their aerodynamic and thermodynamic effects. Buildings are represented by impermeable grid cells at the building positions so that the wind speed vanishes in these grid cells. Wall functions are used to calculate appropriate turbulent fluxes. Most exchange processes at the obstacle surfaces are considered in MITRAS, including turbulent and radiative processes, in order to obtain an accurate surface temperature. MITRAS is also able to simulate the effect of wind turbines. They are parameterized using the actuator-disk concept to account for the reduction in wind speed. The turbulence generation in the wake of a wind turbine is parameterized by adding an additional part to the turbulence mechanical production term in the turbulent kinetic energy equation. Effects of trees are considered explicitly, including the wind speed reduction, turbulence production, and dissipation due to drag forces from plant foliage elements, as well as the radiation absorption and shading. The paper provides not only documentation of the model dynamics and numerical framework but also a solid foundation for future microscale model extensions.