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Journal Article

Screening and engineering of colour centres in diamond.


Kleißler,  F.
Department of NanoBiophotonics, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Lühmann, T., Raatz, N., John, R., Lesik, M., Rödiger, J., Portail, M., et al. (2018). Screening and engineering of colour centres in diamond. Journal of Physics D. Applied Physics, 51(48): 483002. doi:10.1088/1361-6463/aadfab.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0002-5F8F-4
We present a high throughput and systematic method for the screening of colour centres in diamond with the aim of searching for and reproducibly creating new optical centres down to the single defect level, potentially of interest for a wide range of diamond-based quantum applications. The screening method presented here should, moreover, help to identify some already indexed defects among hundreds in diamond (Zaitsev 2001 Optical Properties of Diamond (Berlin: Springer)) but also some promising defects of a still unknown nature, such as the recently discovered ST1 centre (Lee et al 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 487; John et al 2017 New J. Phys. 19 053008). We use ion implantation in a systematic manner to implant several chemical elements. Ion implantation has the advantage of addressing single atoms inside the bulk with defined depth and high lateral resolution, but the disadvantage of producing intrinsic defects. The implanted samples are annealed in vacuum at different temperatures (between 600 degrees C and 1600 degrees C with 200 degrees C steps) and fully characterised at each step in order to follow the evolution of the defects: formation, dissociation, diffusion, re-formation and charge state, at the ensemble level and, if possible, at the single centre level. We review the unavoidable ion implantation defects (such as the GR1 and 3H centres), discuss ion channeling and thermal annealing and estimate the diffusion of the vacancies, nitrogen and hydrogen. We use different characterisation methods best suited for our study (from widefield fluorescence down to subdiffraction optical imaging of single centres) and discuss reproducibility issues due to diamond and defect inhomogeneities. Nitrogen is also implanted for reference, taking advantage of the considerable knowledge on NV centres as a versatile sensor in order to retrieve or deduce the conditions and local environment in which the different implanted chemical elements are embedded. We show here the preliminary promising results of a long-term study and focus on the elements O, Mg, Ca, F and P from which fluorescent centres were found.