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Journal Article

A model system for two-dimensional and three-dimensional photonic crystals: macroporous silicon

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Schilling, J., Wehrspohn, R., Birner, A., Muller, F., Hillebrand, R., Gosele, U., et al. (2001). A model system for two-dimensional and three-dimensional photonic crystals: macroporous silicon. Journal of Optics A-Pure and Applied Optics, 3, S121-S132. doi:10.1088/1464-4258/3/6/362.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0002-9BBD-B
A review of the optical properties of two-dimensional and three-dimensional photonic crystals based on macroporous silicon is given. As macroporous silicon provides structures with aspect ratios exceeding 100, it can be considered to be an ideal two-dimensional photonic crystal. Most of the features of the photonic dispersion relation have been experimentally determined and were compared to theoretical calculations. This includes transmission and reflection of finite and bulk photonic crystals and their variation with the pore radius to determine the gap map. All measurements have been carried out for both polarizations separately since they decouple in two-dimensional photonic crystals. Moreover, by inhibiting the growth of selected pores, point and line defects were realized and the corresponding high-Q microcavity resonances as well as waveguiding properties were studied via transmission. The tunability of the bandgap was demonstrated by changing the refractive index inside the pores caused by an infiltrated liquid crystal undergoing a temperature-induced phase transition. Finally different realizations of three-dimensional photonic crystals using macroporous silicon are discussed. In all cases an excellent agreement between experimental results and theory is observed.