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A novel type of influenza A virus-derived defective interfering particle with nucleotide substitutions in its genome.

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Riedel,  D.
Facility for Electron Microscopy, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Kupke, S. Y., Riedel, D., Frensing, T., Zmora, P., & Reichl, U. (2019). A novel type of influenza A virus-derived defective interfering particle with nucleotide substitutions in its genome. Journal of Virology, 93(4): e01786. doi:10.1128/JVI.01786-18.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-0117-2
Abstract
Defective interfering particles (DIPs) replicate at the expense of coinfecting, fully infectious homologous virus. Typically, they contain a highly deleted form of the viral genome. Utilizing single-cell analysis, here we report the discovery of a yet-unknown DIP type, derived from influenza A viruses (IAVs), termed OP7 virus. Instead of deletions, the genomic viral RNA (vRNA) of segment 7 (S7) carried 37 point mutations compared to the reference sequence, affecting promoter regions, encoded proteins, and genome packaging signals. Coinfection experiments demonstrated strong interference of OP7 virus with IAV replication, manifested by a dramatic decrease in the infectivity of released virions. Moreover, an overproportional quantity of S7 in relation to other genome segments was observed, both intracellularly and in the released virus population. Concurrently, OP7 virions lacked a large fraction of other vRNA segments, which appears to constitute its defect in virus replication. OP7 virus might serve as a promising candidate for antiviral therapy. Furthermore, this novel form of DIP may also be present in other IAV preparations. IMPORTANCE Defective interfering particles (DIPs) typically contain a highly deleted form of the viral genome, rendering them defective in virus replication. Yet upon complementation through coinfection with fully infectious standard virus (STV), interference with the viral life cycle can be observed, leading to suppressed STV replication and the release of mainly noninfectious DIPs. Interestingly, recent research indicates that DIPs may serve as an antiviral agent. Here we report the discovery of a yet-unknown type of influenza A virus-derived DIP (termed "OP7" virus) that contains numerous point mutations instead of large deletions in its genome. Furthermore, the underlying principles that render OP7 virions interfering and apparently defective seem to differ from those of conventional DIPs. In conclusion, we believe that OP7 virus might be a promising candidate for antiviral therapy. Moreover, it exerts strong effects, both on virus replication and on the host cell response, and may have been overlooked in other IAV preparations.