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Journal Article

Seasonal fluctuations in chemical defenses against macrofouling in Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea

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Rickert, E., Karsten, U., Pohnert, G., & Wahl, M. (2015). Seasonal fluctuations in chemical defenses against macrofouling in Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea. Biofouling, 31(4), 363-377. doi:10.1080/08927014.2015.1041020.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-7EE0-3
Abstract
Macroalgae, especially perennial species, are exposed to a seasonally variable fouling pressure. It was hypothesized that macroalgae regulate their antifouling defense to fouling pressure. Over one year, the macrofouling pressure and the chemical anti-macrofouling defense strength of the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus were assessed with monthly evaluation. The anti-macrofouling defense was assessed by means of surface-extracted Fucus metabolites tested at near-natural concentrations in a novel in situ bioassay. Additionally, the mannitol content of both Fucus species was determined to assess resource availability for defense production. The surface chemistry of both Fucus species exhibited seasonal variability in attractiveness to Amphibalanus improvisus and Mytilus edulis. Of this variability, 50-60% is explained by a sinusoidal model. Only F. vesiculosus extracts originating from the spring and summer significantly deterred settlement of A. improvisus. The strength of macroalgal antifouling defense did not correlate either with in situ macrofouling pressure or with measured mannitol content, which, however, were never depleted.