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Contrasting paternal and maternal genetic histories of Thai and Lao populations

MPS-Authors
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Kutanan,  Wibhu
Human Population History, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Arias,  Leonardo
Human Population History, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Macholdt,  Enrico
Human Population History, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;
The Leipzig School of Human Origins (IMPRS), Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Hübner,  Alexander
Human Population History, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;
The Leipzig School of Human Origins (IMPRS), Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Schröder,  Roland
Human Population History, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Stoneking,  Mark
Human Population History, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Kutanan, W., Kampuansai, J., Srikummool, M., Brunelli, A., Ghirotto, S., Arias, L., et al. (2019). Contrasting paternal and maternal genetic histories of Thai and Lao populations. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 36(7): msz083, pp. 1490-1506. doi:10.1093/molbev/msz083.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-6EC8-1
Abstract
The human demographic history of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) has not been well-studied; in particular there have been very few sequence-based studies of variation in the male-specific portions of the Y chromosome (MSY). Here, we report new MSY sequences of ∼2.3 mB from 914 males, and combine these with previous data for a total of 928 MSY sequences belonging to 59 populations from Thailand and Laos who speak languages belonging to three major MSEA families: Austroasiatic (AA), Tai-Kadai (TK) and Sino-Tibetan (ST). Among the 92 MSY haplogroups, two main MSY lineages (O1b1a1a* (O-M95*) and O2a* (O-M324*)) contribute substantially to the paternal genetic makeup of Thailand and Laos. We also analyse complete mtDNA genome sequences published previously from the same groups, and find contrasting pattern of male and female genetic variation and demographic expansions, especially for the hill tribes, Mon, and some major Thai groups. In particular, we detect an effect of post-marital residence pattern on genetic diversity in patrilocal vs. matrilocal groups. Additionally, both male and female demographic expansions were observed during the early Mesolithic (∼10 kya), with two later major male-specific expansions during the Neolithic period (∼4-5 kya) and the Bronze/Iron Age (∼2.0-2.5 kya). These two later expansions are characteristic of the modern AA and TK groups, respectively, consistent with recent ancient DNA studies. We simulate MSY data based on three demographic models (continuous migration, demic diffusion and cultural diffusion) of major Thai groups and find different results from mtDNA simulations, supporting contrasting male and female genetic histories.