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What We Leave Behind : Reproducibility in Chromatin Analysis within and Across Species


Ebert,  Peter
Computational Biology and Applied Algorithmics, MPI for Informatics, Max Planck Society;
International Max Planck Research School, MPI for Informatics, Max Planck Society;

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Ebert, P. (2019). What We Leave Behind: Reproducibility in Chromatin Analysis within and Across Species. PhD Thesis, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken. doi:10.22028/D291-27831.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-9ADF-5
Epigenetics is the field of biology that investigates heritable factors regulating gene expression without being directly encoded in the genome of an organism. The human genome is densely packed inside a cell's nucleus in the form of chromatin. Certain constituents of chromatin play a vital role as epigenetic factors in the dynamic regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic changes on the chromatin level are thus an integral part of the mechanisms governing the development of the functionally diverse cell types in multicellular species such as human. Studying these mechanisms is not only important to understand the biology of healthy cells, but also necessary to comprehend the epigenetic component in the formation of many complex diseases. Modern wet lab technology enables scientists to probe the epigenome with high throughput and in extensive detail. The fast generation of epigenetic datasets burdens computational researchers with the challenge of rapidly performing elaborate analyses without compromising on the scientific reproducibility of the reported findings. To facilitate reproducible computational research in epigenomics, this thesis proposes a task-oriented metadata model, relying on web technology and supported by database engineering, that aims at consistent and human-readable documentation of standardized computational workflows. The suggested approach features, e.g., computational validation of metadata records, automatic error detection, and progress monitoring of multi-step analyses, and was successfully field-tested as part of a large epigenome research consortium. This work leaves aside theoretical considerations, and intentionally emphasizes the realistic need of providing scientists with tools that assist them in performing reproducible research. Irrespective of the technological progress, the dynamic and cell-type specific nature of the epigenome commonly requires restricting the number of analyzed samples due to resource limitations. The second project of this thesis introduces the software tool SCIDDO, which has been developed for the differential chromatin analysis of cellular samples with potentially limited availability. By combining statistics, algorithmics, and best practices for robust software development, SCIDDO can quickly identify biologically meaningful regions of differential chromatin marking between cell types. We demonstrate SCIDDO's usefulness in an exemplary study in which we identify regions that establish a link between chromatin and gene expression changes. SCIDDO's quantitative approach to differential chromatin analysis is user-customizable, providing the necessary flexibility to adapt SCIDDO to specific research tasks. Given the functional diversity of cell types and the dynamics of the epigenome in response to environmental changes, it is hardly realistic to map the complete epigenome even for a single organism like human or mouse. For non-model organisms, e.g., cow, pig, or dog, epigenome data is particularly scarce. The third project of this thesis investigates to what extent bioinformatics methods can compensate for the comparatively little effort that is invested in charting the epigenome of non-model species. This study implements a large integrative analysis pipeline, including state-of-the-art machine learning, to transfer chromatin data for predictive modeling between 13 species. The evidence presented here indicates that a partial regulatory epigenetic signal is stably retained even over millions of years of evolutionary distance between the considered species. This finding suggests complementary and cost-effective ways for bioinformatics to contribute to comparative epigenome analysis across species boundaries.