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#### Phase transitions and pattern formation in ensembles of phase-amplitude solitons in quasi-one-dimensional electronic systems

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##### Citation

Karpov, P., & Brazovskii, S. (2019). Phase transitions and pattern formation in
ensembles of phase-amplitude solitons in quasi-one-dimensional electronic systems.* Physical Review
E,* *99*(2): 022114. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.99.022114.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-BBC5-C

##### Abstract

Most common types of symmetry breaking in quasi-one-dimensional electronic systems possess a combined manifold of states degenerate with respect to both the phase theta and the amplitude A sign of the order parameter A exp(i theta). These degrees of freedom can be controlled or accessed independently via either the spin polarization or the charge densities. To understand statistical properties and the phase diagram in the course of cooling under the controlled parameters, we present here an analytical treatment supported by Monte Carlo simulations for a generic coarse-grained two-field model of XY-Ising type. The degeneracies give rise to two coexisting types of topologically nontrivial configurations: phase vortices and amplitude kinks, i e., the solitons. In two- and three-dimensional states with long-range (or Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type) orders, the topological confinement sets in at a temperature T = T-1 which binds together the kinks and unusual half-integer vortices. At a lower T = T-2, the solitons start to aggregate into walls formed as rods of amplitude kinks which are ultimately terminated by half-integer vortices. With lowering T, the walls multiply, passing sequentially across the sample. The presented results indicate a possible physical realization of a peculiar system of half-integer vortices with rods of amplitude kinks connecting their cores. Its experimental realization becomes feasible in view of recent successes in real-space observations and even manipulations of domain walls in correlated electronic systems.