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PAM identification by CRISPR-Cas effector complexes: diversified mechanisms and structures.

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Gleditzsch,  Daniel
Max Planck Research Group Prokaryotic small RNA Biology, Alumni, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Max Planck Society;

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Müller-Esparza,  Hanna
Max Planck Research Group Prokaryotic small RNA Biology, Alumni, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Max Planck Society;

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Özcan,  Ahsen
Max Planck Research Group Prokaryotic small RNA Biology, Alumni, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Max Planck Society;

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Guo,  Xiaohan
Max Planck Research Group Prokaryotic small RNA Biology, Alumni, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Max Planck Society;

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Randau,  Lennart
Max Planck Research Group Prokaryotic small RNA Biology, Alumni, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Gleditzsch, D., Pausch, P., Müller-Esparza, H., Özcan, A., Guo, X., Bange, G., et al. (2018). PAM identification by CRISPR-Cas effector complexes: diversified mechanisms and structures. RNA Biol., 18: 14, pp. 1. doi:10.1080/15476286.2018.1504546.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0004-454A-C
Abstract
Adaptive immunity of prokaryotes is mediated by CRISPR-Cas systems that employ a large variety of Cas protein effectors to identify and destroy foreign genetic material. The different targeting mechanisms of Cas proteins rely on the proper protection of the host genome sequence while allowing for efficient detection of target sequences, termed protospacers. A short DNA sequence, the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM), is frequently used to mark proper target sites. Cas proteins have evolved a multitude of PAM-interacting domains, which enables them to cope with viral anti-CRISPR measures that alter the sequence or accessibility of PAM elements. In this review, we summarize known PAM recognition strategies for all CRISPR-Cas types. Available structures of target bound Cas protein effector complexes highlight the diversity of mechanisms and domain architectures that are employed to guarantee target specificity.