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Non-aqueous fractionation revealed changing subcellular metabolite distribution during apple fruit development

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Tohge,  T.
Central Metabolism, Department Willmitzer, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Max Planck Society;

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Watanabe,  M.
Amino Acid and Sulfur Metabolism, Department Willmitzer, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Max Planck Society;

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Hoefgen,  R.
Amino Acid and Sulfur Metabolism, Department Willmitzer, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Max Planck Society;

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Fernie,  A. R.
Central Metabolism, Department Willmitzer, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Beshir, W. F., Tohge, T., Watanabe, M., Hertog, M. L. A. T. M., Hoefgen, R., Fernie, A. R., et al. (2019). Non-aqueous fractionation revealed changing subcellular metabolite distribution during apple fruit development. Horticulture Research, 6(1): 98. doi:10.1038/s41438-019-0178-7.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0004-7D10-E
Abstract
In developing apple fruit, metabolic compartmentation is poorly understood due to the lack of experimental data. Distinguishing subcellular compartments in fruit using non-aqueous fractionation has been technically difficult due to the excess amount of sugars present in the different subcellular compartments limiting the resolution of the technique. The work described in this study represents the first attempt to apply non-aqueous fractionation to developing apple fruit, covering the major events occurring during fruit development (cell division, cell expansion, and maturation). Here we describe the non-aqueous fractionation method to study the subcellular compartmentation of metabolites during apple fruit development considering three main cellular compartments (cytosol, plastids, and vacuole). Evidence is presented that most of the sugars and organic acids were predominantly located in the vacuole, whereas some of the amino acids were distributed between the cytosol and the vacuole. The results showed a shift in the plastid marker from the lightest fractions in the early growth stage to the dense fractions in the later fruit growth stages. This implies that the accumulation of starch content with progressing fruit development substantially influenced the distribution of plastidial fragments within the non-aqueous density gradient applied. Results from this study provide substantial baseline information on assessing the subcellular compartmentation of metabolites in apple fruit in general and during fruit growth in particular.