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Is there penetration of titania nanoparticles in sunscreens through skin?: A comparative electron and ion microscopy study

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Citation

Gontier, E., Ynsa, M.-D., Biró, T., Hunyadi, J., Kiss, B., Gáspár, K., et al. (2008). Is there penetration of titania nanoparticles in sunscreens through skin?: A comparative electron and ion microscopy study. Nanotoxicology, 2(4), 218-231. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2009.03.039.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0004-CED3-6
Abstract
We report on a comparative study by Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) combined with Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) on ultra-thin and thin cross-sections, respectively, of various skin samples (porcine skin, healthy human skin, human skin grafted on a severe combined immuno-deficient mouse model) to which we applied topically various formulations containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with primary particle sizes in the range from 20–100 nm. Whereas the HRTEM and STIM/PIXE images reveal clear differences – mainly related to the different thickness of the cross-sections – they unambiguously show that penetration of TiO2 nanoparticles is restricted to the topmost 3–5 corneocyte layers of the stratum corneum (SC).