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SN 2012dn from early to late times: 09dc-like supernovae reassessed

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Taubenberger,  S.
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

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Floers,  A.
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons203862

Vogl,  C.
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons4742

Hillebrandt,  W.
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons4722

Mazzali,  P. A.
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons20224

Noebauer,  U. M.
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons4732

Pakmor,  R.
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Taubenberger, S., Floers, A., Vogl, C., Kromer, M., Spyromilio, J., Aldering, G., et al. (2019). SN 2012dn from early to late times: 09dc-like supernovae reassessed. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 488(4), 5473-5488. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1977.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0004-D011-D
Abstract
As a candidate ‘super-Chandrasekhar’ or 09dc-like Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), SN 2012dn shares many characteristics with other members of this remarkable class of objects but lacks their extraordinary luminosity. Here, we present and discuss the most comprehensive optical data set of this SN to date, comprised of a densely sampled series of early-time spectra obtained within the Nearby Supernova Factory project, plus photometry and spectroscopy obtained at the Very Large Telescope about 1 yr after the explosion. The light curves, colour curves, spectral time series, and ejecta velocities of SN 2012dn are compared with those of other 09dc-like and normal SNe Ia, the overall variety within the class of 09dc-like SNe Ia is discussed, and new criteria for 09dc-likeness are proposed. Particular attention is directed to additional insight that the late-phase data provide. The nebular spectra show forbidden lines of oxygen and calcium, elements that are usually not seen in late-time spectra of SNe Ia, while the ionization state of the emitting iron plasma is low, pointing to low ejecta temperatures and high densities. The optical light curves are characterized by an enhanced fading starting ∼60 d after maximum and very low luminosities in the nebular phase, which is most readily explained by unusually early formation of clumpy dust in the ejecta. Taken together, these effects suggest a strongly perturbed ejecta density profile, which might lend support to the idea that 09dc-like characteristics arise from a brief episode of interaction with a hydrogen-deficient envelope during the first hours or days after the explosion.