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Journal Article

Application of the Electromotive Force as a Shock Front Indicator in the Inner Heliosphere

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Hofer,  Bernhard
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;
IMPRS for Solar System Science at the University of Göttingen, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Hofer, B., & Bourdin, P.-A. (2019). Application of the Electromotive Force as a Shock Front Indicator in the Inner Heliosphere. The Astrophysical Journal, 878(1): 30. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab1e48.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-7682-3
Abstract
The electromotive force (EMF) describes how the evolution and generation of a large-scale magnetic field is influenced by small-scale turbulence. Recent studies of in situ measurements have shown a significant peak in the EMF while a coronal mass ejection (CME) shock front passes by the spacecraft. The goal of this study is to use the EMF as an indicator for the arrival of CME shock fronts. With Helios spacecraft measurements we carry out a statistical study on the EMF during CMEs in the inner heliosphere. We develop an automated shock front detection algorithm using the EMF as the main detection criterion and compare the results to an existing CME database. The properties of the EMF during the recorded events are discussed as a function of the heliocentric distance. Our algorithm reproduces most of the events from Kilpua et al. and finds many additional CME-like events, which proves that the EMF is a good shock front indicator. The largest peaks in the EMF are found from 0 to 50 minutes after the initial shock. We find a power law of −1.54 and –2.18 for two different formulations of the EMF with the heliocentric distance.