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Effector candidate gene deletion in Zymoseptoria tritici and infestation analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar strains on Triticum aestivum cultivars and Arabidopsis thaliana

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Krützfeldt, A. R. (2018). Effector candidate gene deletion in Zymoseptoria tritici and infestation analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar strains on Triticum aestivum cultivars and Arabidopsis thaliana. Bachelor Thesis, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0004-F95D-C
Abstract
Wheat is one of the most important food crops for the global nutrition. Pathogens threatening its yield put the nutrition of millions of people in danger. An important instrument to face this problem is the exploration of the mechanisms the pathogens use for infection. Pathogens secrete specific effectors for the infection of their host. These effectors can interact with the plant’s metabolism in many ways and thus change the plant’s immune reaction to the pathogen. Gaining knowledge of the mechanisms the pathogens use to suppress the plant immune system will help to develop strategies to fight the pathogens or at least weaken their impact. The breeding of resistant crops along with genetical engineering are instruments to protect wheat from its enemies. This will also help to moderate the yield losses caused by its antagonists. Oftentimes, specific avirulence genes are brought into the genome to facilitate this. Basic research is essential to achieve this goal.
The hemibiotropic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici is a pathogen to wheat. It causes severe yield losses very frequently.
Therefore, the goal of this Bachelor thesis was the deletion of an effector candidate gene in Z. tritici, the gene 467 on chromosome 3. In a prior biotrophic phase of fungal infestation, the gene is expressed massively. Additionally, the gene was found to be secreted during that phase. Both of which are crucial signs of it being an effector gene.
In this study, it has been achieved to create five deletion mutants for this gene for the dutch Z. tritici isolate IPO323 and seven mutants for Zt317 (IPO323Δchr18). Examining the gene’s impact of the fungal pathogenicity and the suppression of the plant immune system may be the goal of further research.
Additionally, an experiment with wheat and different Pseudomonas syringae strains was conducted. This might shed light on the impact of coevolution and selectivity of the pathogen’s effector repertoire to the host plant.
Furthermore, an experiment with Arabidopsis and two strains of the above mentioned pseudomonads helped to establish a method for tests with Pseudomonas syringae and Arabidopsis thaliana in our laboratory in Kiel.