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Light-matter interactions within the Ehrenfest–Maxwell–Pauli–Kohn–Sham framework: fundamentals, implementation, and nano-optical applications

MPS-Authors
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Jestädt,  R.
Theory Group, Theory Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;
Center for Free-Electron Laser Science;

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Ruggenthaler,  M.
Theory Group, Theory Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;
Center for Free-Electron Laser Science;

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Oliveira,  M. J. T.
Theory Group, Theory Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;
Center for Free-Electron Laser Science;

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Rubio,  A.
Theory Group, Theory Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;
Center for Free-Electron Laser Science;
Center for Computational Quantum Physics (CCQ), Flatiron Institute;
Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group and ETSF, Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del País Vasco;

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Appel,  H.
Theory Group, Theory Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;
Center for Free-Electron Laser Science;

Fulltext (public)

1812.05049.pdf
(Preprint), 8MB

Supplementary Material (public)
There is no public supplementary material available
Citation

Jestädt, R., Ruggenthaler, M., Oliveira, M. J. T., Rubio, A., & Appel, H. (2019). Light-matter interactions within the Ehrenfest–Maxwell–Pauli–Kohn–Sham framework: fundamentals, implementation, and nano-optical applications. Advances in Physics, 68(4), 225-333. doi:10.1080/00018732.2019.1695875.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-45EB-5
Abstract
In recent years significant experimental advances in nano-scale fabrication techniques and in available light sources have opened the possibility to study a vast set of novel light-matter interaction scenarios, including strong coupling cases. In many situations nowadays, classical electromagnetic modeling is insufficient as quantum effects, both in matter and light, start to play an important role. Instead, a fully self-consistent and microscopic coupling of light and matter becomes necessary. We provide here a critical review of current approaches for electromagnetic modeling, highlighting their limitations. We show how to overcome these limitations by introducing the theoretical foundations and the implementation details of a density-functional approach for coupled photons, electrons, and effective nuclei in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics. Starting point of the formalism is a generalization of the Pauli–Fierz field theory for which we establish a one-to-one correspondence between external fields and internal variables. Based on this correspondence, we introduce a Kohn-Sham construction which provides a computationally feasible approach for ab-initio light-matter interactions. In the mean-field limit, the formalism reduces to coupled Ehrenfest–Maxwell–Pauli–Kohn–Sham equations. We present an implementation of the approach in the real-space real-time code Octopus using the Riemann–Silberstein formulation of classical electrodynamics to rewrite Maxwell's equations in Schrödinger form. This allows us to use existing very efficient time-evolution algorithms developed for quantum-mechanical systems also for Maxwell's equations. We show how to couple the time-evolution of the electromagnetic fields self-consistently with the quantum time-evolution of the electrons and nuclei. This approach is ideally suited for applications in nano-optics, nano-plasmonics, (photo) electrocatalysis, light-matter coupling in 2D materials, cases where laser pulses carry orbital angular momentum, or light-tailored chemical reactions in optical cavities just to name but a few.