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Origine et expansion d’Homo sapiens = The origin and expansion of Homo sapiens

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Hublin,  Jean-Jacques
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Hublin, J.-J. (2020). Origine et expansion d’Homo sapiens = The origin and expansion of Homo sapiens. Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine, 204(3), 268-276. doi:10.1016/j.banm.2019.12.016.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-85C0-B
Abstract
Résumé Homo sapiens est la seule espèce survivante d’une grande diversité de formes d’hominines du Pléistocène Moyen. Cette espèce au succès adaptatif remarquable a une origine africaine et s’est répandu en Eurasie durant le Pléistocène supérieur, d’abord dans les régions tropicales, puis plus tardivement dans les moyennes latitudes. Elle y a supplanté d’autres formes d’hominines, les Néandertaliens et les Dénisoviens en les absorbant partiellement. Les formes les plus anciennes connues d’H. sapiens ont été découvertes à Jebel Irhoud, au Maroc et sont âgées de 300 000 ans. Elles présentent une mosaïque de caractères dérivés et primitifs. Les caractères dérivés intéressent notamment le système masticateur. Parmi les caractères primitifs, la morphologie endocrânienne se distingue de celle globulaire de l’homme actuel. Ces fossiles sont associés à un « Middle Stone Age » ancien représenté en Afrique de l’est et du sud. Le Middle Stone Age ancien pourrait représenter un marqueur de l’expansion de notre espèce. L’origine géographique d’H. sapiens a généralement été située en Afrique sub-saharienne mais aujourd’hui c’est plutôt un modèle d’origine panafricain et polycentrique qui est privilégié. Summary Homo sapiens is the only surviving species among a large diversity of Middle Pleistocene hominin lineages. This very successful group of African origin expanded during the Late Pleistocene first over tropical Eurasia and later into the mid-latitudes where it replaced and partially absorbed other groups of hominins: Neandertals and Denisovans. The oldest known representatives of H. sapiens were discovered in Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and are 300,000 years old. They display a mosaic of derived and primitive features. The former are noticeably expressed in the masticatory system. Among the latter, one should highlight the endocranial morphology that had not yet achieved the globular structure observed in extant humans. These fossils are associated with early Middle Stone Age assemblages also known in eastern and southern Africa. The occurrence of early Middle Stone Age may represent a proxy of the early expansion of our species. Generally, the origin of H. sapiens has been placed in sub-Saharan Africa. However, a pan-African polycentric model of origin is nowadays favored by many scholars.
Summary Homo sapiens is the only surviving species among a large diversity of Middle Pleistocene hominin lineages. This very successful group of African origin expanded during the Late Pleistocene first over tropical Eurasia and later into the mid-latitudes where it replaced and partially absorbed other groups of hominins: Neandertals and Denisovans. The oldest known representatives of H. sapiens were discovered in Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and are 300,000 years old. They display a mosaic of derived and primitive features. The former are noticeably expressed in the masticatory system. Among the latter, one should highlight the endocranial morphology that had not yet achieved the globular structure observed in extant humans. These fossils are associated with early Middle Stone Age assemblages also known in eastern and southern Africa. The occurrence of early Middle Stone Age may represent a proxy of the early expansion of our species. Generally, the origin of H. sapiens has been placed in sub-Saharan Africa. However, a pan