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Journal Article

Genome-wide SNP typing of ancient DNA: Determination of hair and eye color of Bronze Age humans from their skeletal remains.

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Schücker,  K.
Department of Meiosis, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Schmidt, N., Schücker, K., Krause, I., Dörk, T., Klintschar, M., & Hummel, S. (2020). Genome-wide SNP typing of ancient DNA: Determination of hair and eye color of Bronze Age humans from their skeletal remains. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, (in press). doi:10.1002/ajpa.23996.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-9359-1
Abstract
Objective A genome-wide high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing method was tested with respect of the applicability to ancient and degraded DNA. The results were compared to mini-sequencing data achieved through single base extension (SBE) typing. The SNPs chosen for the study allow to determine the hair colors and eye colors of humans. Material and methods The DNA samples were extracted from the skeletal remains of 59 human individuals dating back to the Late Bronze Age. The 3,000 years old bones had been discovered in the Lichtenstein Cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. The simultaneous typing of 24 SNPs for each of the ancient DNA samples was carried out using the 192.24 Dynamic Array (TM) by Fluidigm (R). Results Thirty-eight of the ancient samples (=64%) revealed full and reproducible SNP genotypes allowing hair and eye color phenotyping. In 10 samples (=17%) at least half of the SNPs were unambiguously determined, in 11 samples (=19%) the SNP typing failed. For 23 of the 59 individuals, a comparison of the SNP typing results with genotypes from an earlier performed SBE typing approach was possible. The comparison confirmed the full concordance of the results for 90% of the SNP typings. In the remaining 10% allelic dropouts were identified. Discussion The high genotyping success rate could be achieved by introducing modifications to the preamplification protocol mainly by increasing the DNA input and the amplification cycle number. The occurrence of allelic dropouts indicates that a further increase of DNA input to the preamplification step is desirable.