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Concepts of GPCR-controlled navigation in the immune system

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Lämmermann,  Tim
Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Lämmermann, T., & Kastenmüller, W. (2019). Concepts of GPCR-controlled navigation in the immune system. Immunological Reviews, 289, 205-231. doi:10.1111/imr.12752.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-9CED-1
Abstract
G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling is essential for the spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics during immune responses. For efficient navigation through mammalian tissues, most leukocyte types express more than one GPCR on their surface and sense a wide range of chemokines and chemoattractants, leading to basic forms of leukocyte movement (chemokinesis, haptokinesis, chemotaxis, haptotaxis, and chemorepulsion). How leukocytes integrate multiple GPCR signals and make directional decisions in lymphoid and inflamed tissues is still subject of intense research. Many of our concepts on GPCR-controlled leukocyte navigation in the presence of multiple GPCR signals derive from in vitro chemotaxis studies and lower vertebrates. In this review, we refer to these concepts and critically contemplate their relevance for the directional movement of several leukocyte subsets (neutrophils, T cells, and dendritic cells) in the complexity of mouse tissues. We discuss how leukocyte navigation can be regulated at the level of only a single GPCR (surface expression, competitive antagonism, oligomerization, homologous desensitization, and receptor internalization) or multiple GPCRs (synergy, hierarchical and non-hierarchical competition, sequential signaling, heterologous desensitization, and agonist scavenging). In particular, we will highlight recent advances in understanding GPCR-controlled leukocyte navigation by intravital microscopy of immune cells in mice.