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An oscillatory plug flow photoreactor facilitates semi-heterogeneous dual nickel/carbon nitride photocatalytic C-N couplings

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Gisbertz,  Sebastian
Bartholomäus Pieber, Biomolekulare Systeme, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Pieber,  Bartholomäus
Bartholomäus Pieber, Biomolekulare Systeme, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Rosso, C., Gisbertz, S., Williams, J., Gemoets, H., Debrouwer, W., Pieber, B., et al. (2020). An oscillatory plug flow photoreactor facilitates semi-heterogeneous dual nickel/carbon nitride photocatalytic C-N couplings. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering, 5(3), 597-604. doi:10.1039/D0RE00036A.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-AAD7-9
Abstract
Carbon nitride materials have emerged as an efficient and sustainable class of heterogeneous photocatalysts,} particularly when paired with nickel in dual catalytic cross-coupling reactions. Performing these transformations on larger scales using a continuous process is difficult due to the problems associated with handling solids in flow. By combining an oscillatory pump with a microstructured plug flow photoreactor{,} a stable suspension of the photocatalyst can be maintained{,} circumventing clogging of the reactor channels. Through careful tuning of the oscillator properties{,} the residence time distribution (RTD) was optimized{,} whilst maintaining a stable catalyst suspension. Short residence times (20 min) were achieved using optimized conditions and the recyclability of the photocatalyst was demonstrated over 10 cycles with no loss of activity. During a stable 4.5 hour scale-out demonstration{,} the model substrate could be isolated on 12 g scale (90 yield{,} 2.67 g/h). Moreover{, the method was applied for the gram scale synthesis of an intermediate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient tetracaine.