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#### Distinguishing high-mass binary neutron stars from binary black holes with second- and third-generation gravitational wave observatories

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2001.11470.pdf

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##### Citation

Chen, A., Johnson-McDaniel, N. K., Dietrich, T., & Dudi, R. (2020). Distinguishing
high-mass binary neutron stars from binary black holes with second- and third-generation gravitational wave observatories.* Physical Review D,* *101*(10): 103008. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.101.103008.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-C18A-5

##### Abstract

(Abridged) While the gravitational-wave (GW) signal GW170817 was accompanied

by a variety of electromagnetic (EM) counterparts, sufficiently high-mass

binary neutron star (BNS) mergers are expected to be unable to power bright EM

counterparts. The putative high-mass binary BNS merger GW190425, for which no

confirmed EM counterpart has been identified, may be an example of such a

system. It is thus important to understand how well we will be able to

distinguish high-mass BNSs and low-mass binary black holes (BBHs) solely from

their GW signals. To do this, we consider the imprint of the tidal

deformability of the neutron stars on the GW signal for systems undergoing

prompt black hole formation after merger. We model the BNS signals using hybrid

numerical relativity -- tidal effective-one-body waveforms. Specifically, we

consider a set of five nonspinning equal-mass BNS signals with masses of 2.7,

3.0, 3.2 Msun and with three different equations of state, as well as the

analogous BBH signals. We perform parameter estimation on these signals in

three networks: Advanced LIGO-Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO-Advanced

Virgo-KAGRA with sensitivities similar to O3 and O4, respectively, and a 3G

network of two Cosmic Explorers (CEs) and one Einstein Telescope, with a CE

sensitivity similar to Stage 2. Our analysis suggests that we cannot

distinguish the signals from high-mass BNSs and BBHs at a 90% credible level

with the O3-like network even at 40 Mpc. However, we can distinguish all but

the most compact BNSs that we consider in our study from BBHs at 40 Mpc at a >=

95% credible level using the O4-like network, and can even distinguish them at

a > 99.2% (>= 97%) credible level at 369 (835) Mpc using the 3G network.

Additionally, we present a simple method to compute the leading effect of the

Earth's rotation on the response of a gravitational wave detector in the

frequency domain.

by a variety of electromagnetic (EM) counterparts, sufficiently high-mass

binary neutron star (BNS) mergers are expected to be unable to power bright EM

counterparts. The putative high-mass binary BNS merger GW190425, for which no

confirmed EM counterpart has been identified, may be an example of such a

system. It is thus important to understand how well we will be able to

distinguish high-mass BNSs and low-mass binary black holes (BBHs) solely from

their GW signals. To do this, we consider the imprint of the tidal

deformability of the neutron stars on the GW signal for systems undergoing

prompt black hole formation after merger. We model the BNS signals using hybrid

numerical relativity -- tidal effective-one-body waveforms. Specifically, we

consider a set of five nonspinning equal-mass BNS signals with masses of 2.7,

3.0, 3.2 Msun and with three different equations of state, as well as the

analogous BBH signals. We perform parameter estimation on these signals in

three networks: Advanced LIGO-Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO-Advanced

Virgo-KAGRA with sensitivities similar to O3 and O4, respectively, and a 3G

network of two Cosmic Explorers (CEs) and one Einstein Telescope, with a CE

sensitivity similar to Stage 2. Our analysis suggests that we cannot

distinguish the signals from high-mass BNSs and BBHs at a 90% credible level

with the O3-like network even at 40 Mpc. However, we can distinguish all but

the most compact BNSs that we consider in our study from BBHs at 40 Mpc at a >=

95% credible level using the O4-like network, and can even distinguish them at

a > 99.2% (>= 97%) credible level at 369 (835) Mpc using the 3G network.

Additionally, we present a simple method to compute the leading effect of the

Earth's rotation on the response of a gravitational wave detector in the

frequency domain.